GSPC Target 16

Objective I: Plant diversity is well understood, documented and recognized

Objective II: Plant diversity is urgently and effectively conserved

Objective III: Plant diversity is used in a sustainable and equitable manner

Objective IV: Education and awareness about plant diversity, its role in sustainable livelihoods and importance to all life on earth is promoted

Objective V: The capacities and public engagement necessary to implement the Strategy have been developed


Networks supporting plant conservation activities provide the means to share experiences, exchange data, encourage professional development and build the capacity of the plant conservation community.

Networks are not constrained to follow any particular model and often extend across political or sectoral boundaries. For smaller organizations, participating in networks provides a means to contribute to larger projects, benefit from mutual exercises in capacity building and learn from other partners. For larger organizations, networks provide efficient means to coordinate projects across large distances and aggregate observations and results.

The majority of networks are self-organising, arising in response to needs and opportunities.

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Many different models exist for networks, ranging from informal, sometimes transient efforts to share information or cooperate on specific projects, to large national and international associations with paid staff and secretariats.

In some respects the GSPC itself could be called a grass-roots networking programme.  Resulting from intensive networking between concerned individuals and organisations, it has also facilitated and strengthened networking as organisations respond to the Strategy. Most importantly, it has resulted in the establishment of the Global Partnership for Plant Conservation (GPPC), which might be considered a network of networks as it consists of many partners that are themselves networks.

Full implementation of the GSPC both nationally and globally requires effective cross-sectoral networking.  Organisations working across the agriculture, environmental, forestry and education sectors need to take action if all the 16 targets are to be met.


Several countries that have developed national responses to the GSPC have started by holding national stakeholder workshops in order to identify the relevant individuals and organisations involved in delivering plant conservation targets.  Success in building strong national networks involving all these key players is often pivotal in successful implementation of the GSPC. Indeed, the lack of national networks, and the failure to mobilise all the relevant stakeholders is often cited as one of the reasons for failing to meet the targets.

National and regional plant conservation networks have been successful in some parts of the world:

At the regional level, the Red Latino Americana de Botánica has been very active in capacity building, education, conservation and sustainable use of plants throughout Central and South America.

Similarly, good progress has been made in Australia and New Zealand through the New Zealand Plant Conservation Network and the Australian Network for Plant Conservation.

Networks also exist around individual targets, or groups of targets. For example botanic gardens are well networked nationally, regionally and globally with a particular focus on Targets 8 and 14.

Tools and resources

Please also check in the database of Tools of Resources for Case Studies relevant to this target.



Target 16 Institutions, networks and partnerships for plant conservation established or strengthened at national, regional and international levels to achieve the targets of this Strategy

At the global level, the establishment of the Global Partnership for Plant Conservation (GPPC) has made a good start at bringing together the plant conservation community, however greater efforts are needed to engage other sectors, such as agriculture, industry, education, forestry, water management, Indigenous and Local Communities etc. On a national level there is still a lack of cross-sectorial networks, with limited institutional integration and a lack of mainstreaming

The target is also very closely linked to the Aichi target 19: Knowledge improved, shared and applied (Biodiversity knowledge, science base and technologies are widely shared and transferred, and applied)

Global Partnership for Plant Conservation (GPPC) ( This partnership brings together international, regional and national organisations in order to contribute to the implementation of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC).

At the national level, there is still a lack of cross-sectoral networks, with limited institutional integration and a lack of mainstreaming of plant conservation work.  However, where national responses to the GSPC have been developed, this has helped provide a focus for networking amongst the stakeholders, as can be seen from the example provided by South Africa

Examples of networks develoepd on regional, national and local levels, and on a taxonomic  basis:

Red Latino Americana de Botánica

The Latin American Botanical Network is a collaboration between 6 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile , Costa Rica , Mexico and Venezuela) the network has been actively involved with capacity building, education, conservation and sustainable use of plants throughout Central and South America.

New Zealand Plant Conservation Network

This network was created in 2003, with the aim that no indigenous species of plant will become extinct nor be placed at risk of extinction as a result of human action or indifference, and that the rich, diverse and unique plant life of New Zealand will be recognised, cherished and restored". Since then the network had been contributing to safe guarding indigenous and endemic population through 

•    dissemination of information about indigenous plant species and communities

•    coordination of ex-situ management of threatened plants

•    plant conservation training programmes

•    conservation activities to protect threatened plants and communities

Australian Network for Plant Conservation

The role of the network is to promote and develop plant conservation within Australia, through the collaboration of other plant conservation groups, publications and research topics. More information on the network can be viewed here

Bristol Community Plant Collection UK

The Bristol Community Plant Collection is the first of its kind and involves community groups and schools from around the City of Bristol growing varieties and different species variety of Calendula, with the objective of establishing a dispersed collection of plants.

The Global Oak Conservation Partnership

The Global Oak Conservation Partnership was initiated in 2015 between BGCI, Fauna and Flora International (FFI) and The Morton Arboretum. The project’s aim is to prevent extinctions and ensure healthy populations of oak species for the future. This is accomplished by identifying and prioritizing threatened oak species and integrating tailored in situ protection and management activities in coordination with genetically diverse ex situ collections of living trees. The Partnership supports oak conservation in three regional oak diversity hotspots: Mexico & Central America, the United States, and China & Southeast Asia.




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